White to brownish
White to brownish
Black, brownish black, reddish brown, red, yellow, gray, white; rarely colorless
Adamantine to adamantine metallic, splendent; may be greasy on fractures
Subconchoidal to uneven
Tin ore is usually extracted by gravity separation, which is determined by the fact that tin ore has a higher density than symbiotic minerals. However, tin ore is often accompanied by iron oxide minerals such as magnetite and hematite, so it is impossible to completely separate the ore only by gravity separation method. Therefore, the tin ore extraction method will also use the magnetic process and flotation process methods.
In short, the beneficiation method of tin ore has broken through the traditional gravity separation process and entered a new period of combined use of several beneficiation methods. Nevertheless, gravity beneficiation is still the main method for tin ore beneficiation.
The raw ore treatment of the tin dressing plant can be roughly divided into the following items: ore washing, desliming, crushing, screening, batching, pulping, heavy medium pre-separation, etc. For different tin processing plants, adopt or combines a few of them flexibly.
Desliming is the key part of the tin gravity separation process, which directly affects the separating effect. In China, more than 80% of the raw tin ore is placer tin deposit.
The desliming process is actually divided into two stages, one is dissociation and dispersion of the slime, and the other is the separation of mud and sand. These two phases can be performed separately or simultaneously. The main purpose of desliming is to dissociate and disperse the fine mud that adheres to the coarse particles.
At present, ore washing equipment used in China includes flushing water nozzles and various ore washing machines. Related washing & screening equipment has the vibrating screen, trommel scrubber, spiral sand washer, hydrocyclone, etc.
Heavy media preselection has been developed rapidly in tin dressing plants, can be saw in the large scale tin processing plants in Australia, Bolivia, UK, China. Heavy media separation machines have heavy medium cyclone, D.W.P separator. In addition, cone separators are sometimes used as pre-selection equipment.
Tin ore is brittle and easier to over crush than other symbiotic minerals, therefore, the tin ores process generally adopts a two-four stage grinding circuit. As for the tin process flow, if the sulfide needs to be removed, there is a problem of desulfurization first or after desulfurization, and one desulfurization or multiple desulfurization process. These are determined according to the properties of the raw ore. The following polymetallic sulfide ore tin ore extraction process flow for your reference.
Tin sand separator machine mainly includes tin mineral jigs, tin ore shaker tables and various types of spiral separator.
China has accumulated rich experience in the treatment of tin ore slime, which is of international advanced level.
The tin slime treatment process is divided into two parts: slime pretreatment and slime beneficiation. The pretreatment is the concentration of the slime to make the amount of the ore to be balanced and the quality (grain size, concentration, etc.) stable.
Since the mid-1960s, the tin slime treatment process composed of a series of slime separation equipment independently developed by China has attracted the attention of the international beneficiation community. The essential part of the tin slime process is a centrifugal centrifuge machine — belt chute — ore shaker table.
After 20 years of change, this tin ore slime treatment process with Chinese characteristics is now in a more perfect stage. Some other tin equipments are emerging, such as small-caliber hydrocyclones, cross-flow belts.
Cassiterite flotation process has not been widely used in production. The reasons are that the cost of the flotation reagent is too high, and another is the toxicity of the flotation reagent on the environment cannot be ignored. However, in terms of tin flotation beneficiation technology itself, cassiterite flotation has made progress, especially in the area of new flotation agents, which have opened up a wider field.
—Tin Processing Plant—
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