Crushing and Grinding Equipment Common Faults and Solutions

Published time:26 April 2023

Mineral processing equipment plays a very important role in mineral processing operations. The operation stability and reliability of equipment are directly related to the efficiency and overall benefits of mineral processing. To ensure that the mineral processing equipment is always in good operating condition and promote mining enterprises to occupy a more favorable position in the fierce market competition, it is necessary to master the common faults of various mineral processing equipment, deeply analyze the cause of the fault, and do an excellent job in daily maintenance and timely repair. Work, improve equipment operation efficiency, and increase efficiency and income for mining enterprises. This article briefly analyzes the causes of crushing and grinding equipment failures.

Crushing Equipment

Currently, the commonly used crushing equipment includes jaw crushers, cone crushers, and impact crushers.




The wearing parts of the jaw crusher mainly include movable jaws, tooth plates, eccentric shafts, and bearings. The wear of the cone crusher is mainly the wear of the frame and the spherical bearing, the wear of the main shaft and the cone bush, the wear of the thrust plate and the gear, the wear of the crushing chamber, and the wear of the eccentric shaft sleeve. The vulnerable parts of the impact crusher are mainly the blow bar and the impact plate. In the actual production process, the abnormal wear of wearing parts is not only related to the structural defects of the equipment but also mainly related to the excessive hardness of the material, the coarse particle size of the material, the unsatisfactory lubrication effect of the equipment, and environmental factors.

  • Defects in the equipment structure. A large part of the wear and tear of equipment is due to defects in equipment installation, such as small gaps in structural parts, skewed structural parts, reasonable installation angles, etc., which lead to the unsmooth operation of equipment components or uneven contact strength, resulting in severe local wear. For example, the wear of the eccentric shaft of the jaw crusher is often due to the unreasonable rotation of the sealing sleeve and the taper sleeve, which causes the taper sleeve to lose it’s tightening force and cause the eccentric shaft to loosen.
  • The hardness of the material is too large. Material hardness is an important factor affecting the crushing efficiency of the crusher, and it is also the main factor that causes wear on the tooth plate, crushing cavity, and other parts that are directly in contact with the ore block. The harder the material is, the more difficult it is to crush, which reduces the crushing efficiency of the crusher, accelerates the wear speed, and shortens the service life of the crusher.
  • The feeding particle size is improper. If the feeding particle size is improper, it will not only affect the crushing effect but also cause severe wear of the tooth plate, thrust plate, and liner. When the feeding particle size is too large, the damage to the crusher with a sliding structure will be more serious.
  • The lubrication effect of the equipment could be better. Insufficient lubrication is the main cause of bearing wear because the bearing bears a large load during production, which makes the friction force of the bearing larger during operation, so the bearing is subjected to severe wear.
  • Environmental factors. Among the environmental factors, the biggest impact on the crusher is dust. The crushing operation of the crusher will generate a large amount of dust. If the sealing effect of the equipment is not good, the dust will damage the power system of the crusher the one hand, resulting in serious wear of the power system; on the other hand, it will affect the lubrication system of the crusher because the dust Entering the lubricating part, it is easy to aggravate the wear of the lubricating surface.


Grinding Equipment

Commonly used grinding equipment includes dry ball mill, wet ball mill, etc. When the ball mill works, it mainly crushes minerals by impacting steel balls. Common wearing parts include liners, cylinders, grid plates, liner bolts, pinions, etc.


ball mill


The main reasons for the wear of these wearing parts are an improper selection of ball mill liner material, abnormal operation of the ball mill, long running time of ball mill, corrosion in the wet grinding environment, mismatch of liner and ball material, etc.

  • Improper selection of ball mill liner material. Improper selection of liner material will greatly reduce its fatigue resistance and life, not only failing to meet the operating requirements of the ball mill but even plastic deformation or drumming.
  • The ball mill is not working correctly. The liner’s wear will increase when the ball mill is operating abnormally. The steel balls are mixed with the materials when the ball mill is in regular operation. When the steel balls fall, they often do not directly hit the liner but are blocked by the material mixed with steel balls, which can protect the liner. However, if the ball mill is running at a low load, the steel balls will directly hit the liner, which will cause serious wear and even breakage of the liner.
  • The running time of the ball mill should be shorter. The ball mill determines the processing capacity of the mineral processing plant to a large extent. It is a high-efficiency equipment for the mineral processing plant. However, if it cannot be maintained and maintained in time, it will aggravate the wear and aging of the protective pad and liner.
  • Corrosion in a wet grinding environment. Concentrators generally use wet ball mills. Some regulators for flotation operations are usually added during the grinding operation so that the pulp in the ball mill has a particular acidity and alkalinity. The acidity, acidity, and alkalinity pulp usually accelerate the corrosion of worn parts.
  • The liner and ball material do not match. There is a hardness matching problem between the liner and the grinding ball, and the hardness of the grinding ball should be 2~4HRC higher than that of the liner. For example, the liner of the ball mill is made of high manganese steel, and the grinding ball is made of high-chromium cast iron (steel) with excellent wear resistance, which will increase the wear of the high-manganese steel liner; on the contrary, the liner is made of high-chromium cast iron (steel). The grinding ball is made of ordinary carbon steel with poor wear resistance. Due to the large consumption of the grinding ball, the number of times the ball is thrown increases when the ball is replenished. It is inevitable to smash the liner empty, resulting in cracking the liner and smashing the surface of the grinding ball out of the pit. Therefore, the liner should be made of materials with good wear resistance, and the grinding balls should also be made of materials with good wear resistance.

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